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histori minangkabau

The Pagaruyung

Pagaruyung kingdom was founded by a hybrid Minangkabau - Majapahit named Adityawarman, in the year 1347. Adityawarman was the son of Dara and Adwayawarman Orange, daughter of the kingdom Dharmasraya. He was previously with Gajah Mada Mahapatih fight conquered Bali and Jakarta.

Before this kingdom was founded, in fact Minangkabau society in the region already have such political confederation system, which is the consensus of the various institutions and Nagari Luhak. View from the historical continuity, the Kingdom of Pagaruyung such changes are merely administrative system for the local community (tribe Minang).

Adityawarman bertahta initially as a subordinate king (uparaja) from Majapahit and subjected the important areas in Sumatra, such as Kuntu and Kampar, which is of pepper. However, news from China known Pagaruyung send envoys to China a quarter century later. Adityawarman presumably seeks escape from Majapahit.

Majapahit possibility to send back troops to quell Adityawarman. Legend legend Minangkabau-record tremendous battle with the army in the area of the Majapahit Sibusuk. Perhaps the area so called because many corpses are bergelimpangan there. According to the legend of the army successfully defeated Java.

The Hindu
Inscription Adityawarman

The influence of the Hindu Pagaruyung growing roughly at the 13th century and to-14, namely the delivery Ekspedisi Pamalayu by Kertanagara, and the government Ananggawarman Adityawarman and her son. Their power is strong enough Pagaruyung and dominate the middle of the Sumatra region other. In the inscription on the statue Amoghapasa bertarikh year 1347 BC (Sastri 1949) found that in Padang Roco, Batang Hari river upstream, there is praise to the king of Sri Udayadityavarma, which is very likely Adityawarman.

Nevertheless, the descendants of Adityawarman and probably not next Ananggawarman kings strong. Government and replaced by the people themselves Minangkabau Rajo Tigo Selo, assisted by the Central Basa Ampat. Areas Siak, Kampar and Indragiri then separated and ditaklukkan by Malacca Sultanate and the Sultanate of Aceh [1], and then became independent countries.

The influence of Islam

The influence of Islam in Pagaruyung growing roughly at the 16-century, namely through the traveler and the religious teachers who stay over or come out of Aceh and Malacca. One of the students who are scholars of Aceh Singkil Abdurrauf Sheikh (Tengku Syiah Kuala), namely Sheikh Burhanuddin Ulakan, scholars who are considered first spread Islam in Pagaruyung. In the 17th century, the Kingdom of Pagaruyung eventually changed to Islamic sultanate. Islam's first king in the traditional Minangkabau legend mentioned named Sultan Alif.

With the inclusion of Islam, the customary rules that conflict with the teachings of Islam began to be erased and the things that a basic change in the customary rules of Islam. Papatah traditional Minangkabau the famous: "Customary basandi syarak, syarak basandi Kitabullah", which means the traditional Minangkabau based on Islam, the religion of Islam based on the AI-Quran.

Relations with the Netherlands and the UK

When VOC successfully overcome the Sultanate of Aceh in the years of war in 1667, Aceh melemahlah influence on Pagaruyung. Relations between the regions and the coastal region with the central Kingdom Pagaruyung be close again. At that time Pagaruyung is one of the trade center on the island of Sumatra, as the production of gold in there. Thus it is to attract the Netherlands and the UK to establish links with Pagaruyung. There are notes that the year 1684, a Portuguese named Tomas Dias made visits to Pagaruyung up the Dutch governor general in Malacca. [2] Since then start terbina communication and trade between the Netherlands (VOC) and Pagaruyung.

As a result of the conflict between England and France in the War Napoleon in the Netherlands where the French, the Netherlands and the UK to fight successfully the west coast of West Sumatra between the years 1795 until the year 1819. Thomas Stamford Raffles Pagaruyung in the year 1818, which at that time had already started going to war between the noble and Padri (indigenous people) Pagaruyung. Raffles at the time found that the burning capital of the kingdom due to the war going. After going peace between England and the Netherlands in 1814, then re-enter the Netherlands in May 1819 year. Netherlands ensure they go back on the island of Sumatra and Pagaruyung, with ditanda-tanganinya treaties London in 1824 with the UK.

Runtuhnya Pagaruyung

Khanate Pagaruyung already very weak at the time the war Padri, although the king is still respected. Areas in the west coast due to the influence in Aceh, while in the coastal south Inderapura practical become independent kingdom, although still subject to the authorized Pagaruyung king.

In the early 19th century conflict broke out between the Padri and the noble (indigenous people). In a meeting between the family and the kingdom Pagaruyung Padri fracas broke out, which caused many families slain king. But Sultan Muning Alamsyah survived and fled to Lubukjambi.

Because the recessive Padri, family kingdom Pagaruyung request assistance to the Netherlands. On 10 February 1821 the Sultan Alam Bagagarsyah, the nephew of the Sultan Muning Alamsyah, along with 19 other indigenous leaders who signed the agreement to surrender the kingdom Pagaruyung Netherlands. As a return, the Netherlands will help fight against the Padri and Sultan appointed Tanah Datar Regent represent the central government.

After completing the Diponegoro War in Java, the Netherlands and then try to conquer the Padri with the shipment from the army and Maluku. However, the Dutch colonial ambition seems to make the customary and the Padri try forget their differences and coalesce in secret to drive the Netherlands. On 2 May 1833 the Sultan Alam Minangkabau Dipertuan Bagagarsyah, the last king of the Kingdom of Pagaruyung, arrested by Lieutenant Colonel Elout in Batusangkar for alleged treason. Sultan been Betawi, and finally in the graveyard dimakamkan Mangga Dua.

The power

Region Kingdom Pagaruyung political influence is the area of life, growth, and development of Minangkabau culture. This region can be tracked from the legend of (traditional legend) speak Minang this: [3]

From Sikilang Aia Bangih
Until Taratak Aia Black
From Durian Ditakuak Rajo
Until beehive Balantak Basi

Sikilang Aia Bangih northern limit is now in the West Pasaman, with Christmas, North Sumatra. Black is Taratak Aia Bengkulu area. Durian is Ditakuak Rajo area in Kabupaten Bungo, Jambi. Finally, Basi is a beehive Balantak areas in Rantau Barangin, Kampar regency, Riau now. In full, the legend says that Nature Minangkabau (region Pagaruyung Kingdom) is as follows:

Nan salilik Gunuang Marapi
Saedaran Gunuang Pasaman
Sago Sajajaran jo Singgalang
Talang Saputaran jo Kurinci
From Sirangkak nan Badangkang
Hinggo Buayo Putiah Daguak
Rajo ka doors until Hilia
Hinggo Durian Ditakuak Rajo
Sipisau-knife Hanyuik
Beehive Balantak Basi
Hinggo Aia Babaliak Mudiak
Sailiran Trunk Bangkaweh
Waves up to ka nan badabua
Sailiran Trunk Sikilang
Hinggo lauik nan sadidieh
Ka timua Ranah Aia Bangih
Rao jo Mapat Tunggua
Gunuang Mahalintang
Pasisia Banda Sapuluah
Aia Taratak Black
Until ka Tanjuang Simalidu
Jambi Pucuak side groove

Regional Luhak nan Tigo
Area around Mount Pasaman
The area around Mount Sago and Mt Singgalang
The area around Mount Talang and Mount Kerinci
Regional Pariangan Padang Panjang and the surrounding
Coastal areas in the South to Muko-Muko
Jambi region in the west
Areas adjacent to the Jambi
The area around Mount Indragiri Hulu to Ceylon
The area around Mount Ceylon and Singingi
Area to the east coast region
The area around Lake Singkarak and Batang Ombilin
To the Indian Ocean region
Areas along the fringe of Batang Sikilang
Area bordered by the Indian Ocean
Area east of Air Bangis
Region in the area and Rao Mapat Tunggua
The border with southern Tapanuli
Areas along the west coast of Sumatra
The area around Silauik and Lunang
Area to Tanjung Simalidu
Regional sehiliran Batang Hari

System of government
Cap Nature Bagagarsyah Sultan, the king last Pagaruyung

government officials

Pagaruyung king, who is also known as the King of Nature, perform tasks with the help of government two main adjuvant (viceroy), the King of the Ceremony in Buo, and observance of the King in the Holy Sumpur. Together, they called smth Rajo Tigo Selo, which means three kings "bersila" or bertahta. King Ceremony decide issues of customs, while the King observance religious issues. If there is a problem that is not completed then taken to the King Pagaruyung.

In addition to the two before the king, King Nature also aided by Basa Ampek Central, meaning "great people" (main ministers) that four. They are:

1. Bandaro (treasurer) Tuanku or decree which is located in Sungai Tarab. Almost the same position as Prime Minister. Treasurer this position can be compared with the same name in the Sultanate of Malacca
2. Makhudum based in Sumanik. He served with the region maintaining relationships and other kingdoms.
3. Indomo based in Saruaso. He served maintain customs
4. Mr Gadang which is located in Batipuh. He served as commander of war

However, the influence of the Islamic put Mr Kadi which is located in Padang Ganting. He served keep sharia religious entry into Basa Ampek Central mengeser Mr Gadang position in Batipuh.
As government officials, each Basa Central Ampek have certain areas in which they are entitled to collect tribute sekedarnya. These areas are called each region. Bandaro have shoreline in Bandar X, Mr Kadi region is in close Sijunjung VII Koto, Indomo have shoreline in the northern region while Makhudum have in the Malay Peninsula, in the area of the Minangkabau settlement there.

Government and Darek Rantau

Kingdom Pagaruyung supervise more than 500 Nagari, which is the autonomous government of the region. Nagari-nagari this is the basis kingdom, and has a broad authority in the ruling. Nagari have a kekayaannya own and has its own court adatnya. Some fruit nagari sometimes form alliances. For example, Bandar X alliance is ten nagari in the south. The head of the alliance is taken the headman, and often given the title of king. King of this small act as the representative of King Pagaruyung.


Darek in the region or the core area Pagaruyung Kingdom (Luhak Nan Tigo, the Luhak No Data nan, later to become Land Data, Luhak Agam and Luhak Limopuluah), generally nagari-nagari this be governed by the headman, the head of each tribe who dwelt in nagari it. Penghulu elected by tribal members, and citizens nagari control the government through the penghulu them. Government decision is taken through the agreement of the headman, after dimusyawarahkan first. At the core of the Kingdom of Pagaruyung this, King Pagaruyung only act as a mediator, although he still respected.

The division of darek area is as follows:

Luhak Land Data

* Nature Surambi Sungaipagu
* Batipuah Sapuluah Koto
* Kubuang Tigobaleh
* Melody Tujuah nan
* Limokaum Duobaleh Koto
* Lintau sideline Koto
* Lubuak nan Tigo
* Nilam Payuang Sakaki
* Pariangan Padangpanjang
* River Tarab Salapan Batua
* Talawi Tigo Tumpuak
* Tanjuang nan Tigo
* Koto Sapuluah in Ateh

Luhak Agam

* Ampek-Ampek Angkek
* Central Lawang nan Tigo
* Nagari-nagari Lake Maninjau

Luhak Limopuluah Koto

* Hulu
* Lareh
* Luhak
* Ranah
* Password


King Pagaruyung control directly Rantau area. It can make laws and collect taxes there. These areas include foreign Pasaman, Kampar, Rokan, Indragiri and Batanghari. Shoreline areas in the first place is the search for life for the tribe of Minangkabau.

Luhak each region has its own rantaunya. Population Tanah Datar wander to the west and southeast, the Agam wander to the north and west, while the population Limopuluah Koto wander to the Riau mainland now, that is Rantau Kampar Kiri and Rantau Kampar Kanan. In addition, there is the border region and luhak region as Ujuang Darek Kapalo Rantau. In areas such as the shoreline in Pasaman, headman of this often move to the small kings, who ruled from generation to generation. Inderapura in, the king took the title sultan.

The division of the region are as follows:

Rantau Luhak Land Data

Rantau Poor Aso Nan Duo Puluah

* Lubuak Ambacang
* Lubuak Jambi
* Gunuang Koto
* Benai
* Pangian
* Basra
* Sitinjua
* Kopa
* Want to Taluak
* Inuman
* Surantiah
* Taluak Rayo
* Simpang Kulayang
* Aia Molek
* Pasia Ringgit
* Kuantan
* Talang mamak
* Kualo Thok

Pasisia Rantau Panjang (Rantau Banda Sapuluah)

* Trunk Kapeh
* Kuok
* Surantiah
* Silver Ampiang
* Kambang
* Lakitan
* Punggasan
* Aia Hajj
* Banda Painan Salido
* Tarusan
* Tapan
* Lunang
* Silauik
* Indropuro

Ujuang Darek Kapalo Rantaunya

* Anduriang of Wood
* Guguak Kapalo Hilalang
* Sicincin
* Toboh Pakandangan
* Duo Times Sabaleh Anam Lingkuang
* Tujuah Koto
* River Sariak.

Rantau Luhak Agam

* Nagari-west coast of Sumatra nagari
* West Pasaman
* East Pasaman
* Panti
* Rao
* Lubuak Sikapiang
* Etc..

Ujuang Darek Kapalo Rantaunya

* Palembayan
* Silaras Aia
* Lubuak Basuang
* Kampuang Pinang
* Simpang Ampek
* River Garinggiang
* Lubuak Bawan
* Tigo Koto
* Garagahan
* Manggopoh

Rantau Luhak Limo Koto Puluah

* Mangilang
* Tanjuang Back
* Pangkalan
* Koto Alam
* Gunuang Malintang
* Muaro Paiti
* Rantau Barangin
* Rokan Pandalian
* Kuatan Singingi
* Ceylon Gunuang
* Kuntu
* Lipek Kain
* Ludai
* Ujuang Bukik
* Sanggan
* Baleh Tigo Koto Kampar
* Sibiruang
* Gunuang Malelo
* Tabiang
* Tanjuang
* Gunuang puisne
* Muaro Takuih
* Pangkai
* Binamang
* Tanjuang Abai
* Island Gadang
* Baluang Koto Sitangkai
* Baleh Tigo
* Lubuak Aguang
* Limo Koto Kampar Kuok
* Slao
* Bangkinang
* Rumbio
* Aia Tirih
* Taratak Buluah
* Great Indawang
* Pangkalan Kapeh
* Pangkalan Sarai
* Koto Laweh

In addition to the three areas shoreline before, there is a shoreline area that is located in the region now Malaysia, namely Rantau Nan side (Negeri Sembilan). Nagari-nagarinya is

* Jelai
* Jelebu
* Jehol
* Kelang
* Naniang
Great Sand
* Rembau
* Segamat
* Sungai Ujong


1. ^ Cheah Boon Kheng, Haji Abdul Rahman Ismail (1998). Malay history. the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.
2. ^ Haan, F. de, 1896. Naar midden Sumatra in 1684, Batavia-'s Hage, Albrecht & Co.-M. Nijhoff. 40p. 8vo wrs. Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde, Deel 39.
3. ^ Djamaris, Edwar. 1991. Minangkabau legend. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.


* Amran, Rusli (1981). West Sumatra to Plakat Panjang. Publisher Sinar Harapan.
* HAMKA, Prof.. Dr. (12 February 1975). Speech by Prof.. Dr. HAMKA funeral ceremony in the back Bagagar Sultan Alam Syah in Central Jakarta City. Publisher Panjimas Pustaka, Jakarta.

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